AccordionAcierageAmalgamatingFlatHair spaceAquatintStrippingAssemblyShavingsBurinTiltingLowercaseBendayBichromyBlanket Engraving proofRun proofPress proofFull bleedBindingSectionMountingCalculation of the weight of a sheetCharacterCardBindingCaseCelluloseCaesuraEscapementPlateCMYKLinen testerMisprintCharacter heightCoatedCrossedCromalinPlate markOverhangOff-setCuttingKnock outGradedHalf-toneDensitometer Hot gildingTwelveDPIEtchingInsertInsertingOpacityProofWipingDrop forgingForwardingRight stamp, left stampEmbossing stampLeafWatermarkFilmFlexographyFolioBleedShaded backgroundFontFrenchOversRangeEmbossingMarkingThicknessBasis weight Sawing-inCoveringHelio engravingTrim markHomotheticImposition Incorporation / IncrustationInfographicsInsulationItalianWidthDropped initialLithographySmudgingSmudgeMagentaQuireScriptMock-upGuillotineWettingOffsetPage numberingPantone or PMSDesktop publishingPackingOversFluffingLaminationPerforationStaplingPixelPlate Wallet foldShade pointDrypointFontsGripper marginQuadrichromyGroovingReamRectoSplitMarkingRetouchingTransferReserveResolutionDouble-sided printingR.I.PTrimmingRomanRotatorRollingRolled (fold)SaturationScannerSerigraphyScreenedSurfacedEngravingRelief engravingCopper-plate engravingThermal engravingStampingPrint runMarkGravureTypographyVectorial (method)VellumLaid-finishU.V. varnishVersoSection


Accordion: Folding into an M-shape to open a brochure like an accordion

Acierage: Electrolytic operation covering the copper plate with a thin film of steel (a few microns), making the plate more resistant and resulting in larger print runs (relief printing)

Amalgamating: Simultaneous print run on a single sheet, different prints on the same paper and in the same colours (Printing)

Flat: Plain colour printing to obtain a uniform shade. (All printing processes)

Hair space: Space between two letters

Aquatint: Engraving with acid on a previously stippled plate. This process, discovered in the 18th century, enables the artist to obtain shades by using the “bite” and fineness of the resin, allowing him to create areas with different values without hatching. (Engraving / Relief Printing)

Stripping: Damage to the surface of the printing paper (Printing)

Assembly: Organisation of sections into a specific order (Forwarding)

Shavings: off-cuts of metal along the groove produced by the drypoint on copper. Inking these shavings gives the drypoint its particularly delicate nature which sometimes disappears with use. The word “shavings” is also used to define the irregular edges of uncut paper. It is therefore said that the edges are unshaved. (Engraving, Relief Printing)

Burin: Steel tool cut in bevel with which artists cut a groove without shavings (clean). Contrary to the drypoint which leaves shavings, the burin removes a turning. Burin engraving can be recognised by the clean line. (Engraving/Relief Printing)

Tilting: Turning the paper to simultaneously print on both sides with the same structure (Printing)

Lowercase: Lowercase letters and, by extension, the name of the bottom part of the box (“case”) where they are found. This box is used by typographers to classify a font of characters. (Composition)

Benday: Juxtaposition of shades defined in percentages of primary colours to obtain colours without any deterioration (Photoengraving)

Bichromy: Result obtained after photographical selection in two direct colours of an original colour document or after interpretation of a semi-shaded black document. (Photoengraving)

Blanket: Sheet of rubber placed on a transfer cylinder between the plate and the paper (Offset printing).

Engraving proof: Agreement given on execution documents before photoengraving (Publishing). Agreement on the plotters before engraving the plates (Offset printing)

Run proof: Proof signed by the client or its representative and kept as a model during the print run (Printing)

Press proof: Agreement from the client on the last element (photoengraving proof or printing plotter) before the print run, removing responsibility from the printer. All copies from the print run must therefore be as close as possible to the press proof (Printing/Relief printing).

Full bleed: Printing up to the edge of the paper

Binding: Forwarding several sections under flexible covers (Forwarding)

Section: Group of pages resulting from folding a sheet. The sections are placed one on top of the other or inserted one after the other (Forwarding)

Mounting: Layout of different groups of prints on the machine to obtain a proof to be used as a reference throughout the run (Printing)

Calculation of the weight of a sheet: I (cm) X L (cm) X g/m2 divided by 10000.
for example: the weight of an A4 sheet in 80g/m2 is equal to: 21X29.7X80/10000 or 4.9896g.

Character: Print letter – all the letters of a determined alphabet: family of characters (Composition)

Card: Thin good quality board, from 250g (Paper)

Binding: Product obtained after transformation of card (Forwarding)

Case: Typographic box to classify a character font, divided into compartments (Typography)

Cellulose: Fibrous substance obtained from wood, cotton, linen, hemp and other plants. It is the solid element of plants used to make paper paste.

Caesura: Division of a word at the end of a line which obeys the very precise typographic and etymological rules of the language used.

Escapement: Space occupied by the width of a character. A character escapes when it allows fewer characters on the line than another (Composition). Different formatting of pages due to the thickness of the paper of all pages in a section (Forwarding)

Plate: Plate of metal relief engraved for typographic printing (Typography). Negative image on film (Photography)

CMYK: Letters which appear on the screen during the selection of colours and which designate the four primary colours of printing: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (“K”). (DTP)

Linen tester: Enlarged magnifying glass on a hinge used originally in the textile industry and then in printing to examine the details of a plate or print.

Misprint: Error in the composition of one or several letters (Composition).

Character height: Total height of a typographical character, including slopes. It is expressed in points (Composition)

Coated: Type of paper whose surface has been treated giving it a smooth appearance (paper). Typography proof to create a document on the paper of the same name (Typography)

Crossed: Fold executed perpendicularly to another

Cromalin: Quick photoengraving proof obtained photographically (Photoengraving)

Plate mark: Imprint left by the thickness of the plate on the paper. Some bevelled and pressed engravings leave almost no mark. However, enough remains to recognise that these are engravings on metal. (Engraving / Printing)

Overhang: Part printed outside the format of the page, deleted during guillotining.

Off-set: Parallel fold with irregular intervals

Cutting: Form of mounting, steel nets, grooves and cutters for folding and all cutting which cannot be carried out with the guillotine (Forwarding)

Knock out: Reserve in a colour

Graded: progressive reduction of shades to vary the intensity

Half-tone: Unshaded image presenting shades of grey or grades (Photoengraving)

Densitometer: Tool for measuring colour density (Printing)

Hot gilding: This hot printing process involves transferring a film of coloured pigments onto the paper with heat (80 to 160°C) which acts on a heat-meltable glue. The pigments can be gilded, silver plated, matt or shiny, with diffraction, pearlized, transparent or in colour (including white). (Hot printing / relief printing).

Twelve: Typographic measuring unit, abbreviation of 12 Didot points (4.51mm), a synonym of Cicero (Typographical composition)

DPI: Dot Per Inch

Etching: Groove engraving process on metal, generally copper. The board is covered on both sides with a protective varnish. The artist, with a small point, draws on the varnish, thus revealing areas of copper as the tool moves across. Once the drawing is finished the artist puts the metal plate in a bath of acid for the “bite” (corrosion). The depth of the bite will vary depending on the dilution of the acid and the time the board is left. The acid only attacks the places where the copper is not protected. The printing ink is put in these areas. (Engraving / printing).

Insert: Additional element to a brochure placed in a determined or undetermined position (Forwarding)

Inserting: Placing of a manual insert. Inserting one section into another (Forwarding)

Opacity: Aspect of a sheet when examined under a light source to judge its opacity (Paper)

Proof: Print run on paper of a given composition as a control sample (Typography or DTP). Trial relief or flat print or photoengraving (Photoengraving)

Wiping: Delicate operation used during printing of copper-plate engravings where the parts which must appear in white are cleaned, without empting the carvings of their ink (Copper-plate engraving printing)

Drop forging: Drop forging is the print produced with ink on a flexible medium from a matrix. It is therefore an image printed on paper. The world of drop forging is both a printing technique and an art. It has enabled us to multiply and distribute images. Artists very quickly understood the advantages of this important means of expression and used it to produce exceptional works of art. Drop forging is therefore distinct from painting and drawing because it is printed and can therefore exist in several copies. As its preferred medium is paper, it belongs to the graphic art category. It is often synonymous with engraving because a wood or metal plate is engraved to obtain the printing matrix. (Engraving / printing)

Forwarding: Final operations which, through folding, cutting, assembly, inserting, stapling, stitching, binding, etc. give prints their definitive form (Finishing)

Right stamp, left stamp: Vertical alignment of lines of text to the right or the left for flag composition, due to mounting on a typography stamp (Composition)

Embossing stamp: Engraved form and counter-form (embossing tool) for producing a relief effect (or a groove) in the texture of the paper (Relief printing)

Leaf: Name for a sub-division of a sheet in the cut or uncut format (in a piece of work a leaf represents two pages or two sides, front and back)

Watermark: Mark on the paper paste which can be read under a light source which provides information on the editor and manufacturer of the paper, or a special distinctive mark (Printing and Security)

Film: Photographical film, usually called “photostat” (Publishing)

Flexography: Relief printing process also called “aniline printing” (Printing)

Folio: The actual page number in a publication (Publishing)

Folio: Page numbering

Bleed: Marginless print of a cut illustration during forwarding, a minimum of 3mm

Shaded background: Surface made of shade points, the shaded background can be plain or graded, printed in black or colour by one or several layers of ink.

Font: Complete character font with its figures, punctuation and various symbols such as small capitals, etc. (Typography and DTP)

French: Format where the largest size is the height

Overs: quantity of paper needed for development a transformation operation, not useable for the definitive copies (Printing and Forwarding)

Range: Photoengraving trial, colour by colour then overlaying the colours to facilitate corrections and follow-up on a machine of the result obtained. Colours obtained from the combination of the four primary colours: red (magenta), blue (cyan), yellow and black in the European range (GEU) or by that of other primary colours in the American range (DIN) (Printing and photoengraving)

Embossing: Printing process to obtain inked and non-inked relief patterns with plates (engraved tools) in grooves and relief counter-parts (Relief printing)

Marking: Relative roughness of the surface of paper (Paper). Granular appearance of certain kinds of fast photographical emulsions (Photography)

Thickness: Thickness of a letter. A character can have several thicknesses: slight, thin, book, half-bold, bold, extra bold (Composition)

Basis weight: Weight of a sheet of paper or card in grams to the square meter (Paper)

Sawing-in: Cutting pages from the back side to improve distribution and gluing and to be able to forward without stitching (Forwarding)

Covering: Composition whose justification is subject to the outline of an illustration (Composition)

Helio engraving: Printing and engraving process for large print runs produced with a copper cylinder engraved in grooves. The depth of the grooves determines the intensity of the values (Printing)

Trim mark: Cutting line (marks or mark crosses) printed in the margins to mark the various films

Homothetic: Characteristic of a format which is proportional to another, in reduction and enlargement. (Studio and photoengraving)

Imposition: Classification in a determined order of the pages of a publication so that, after folding, the pages follow on in the right order (Printing)

Incorporation / Incrustation: Placing an image into another through photographical mounting or with software

Infographics: All the techniques for creating and processing images electronically

Insulation: Exposure a photo-sensitive medium to a light source through and with contact with a film (photoengraving and printing)

Italian: Format where the largest size is the width

Width: Width of the bobbin paper band (Paper and printing)

Dropped initial: Capital letter placed at the start of a paragraph (Typography)

Lithography: From Litho=Stone. Founded on the mutual dislike of water and greasy substances, this process, where there is no relief or groove, involves juxtaposing onto damp surfaces (which will not hold the greasy ink) other surfaces which, once inked, will reject water and will therefore be the only ones which can be printed. Lithography was discovered in 1796 by A. Senefelder. (Printing)

Smudging: Ink stains from other sheets of paper when piled up after leaving the machine (Printing)

Smudge: Overs sheet during mounting of the machine (Printing)

Magenta: Shade of purple red, primary colour in quadrichromy.

Quire: Relationship between the thickness and weight of the paper: a paper is a quire when it appears thick and rigid compared to its weight: one quire equals 25 sheets of paper (Paper)

Script: Family of characters whose outline evokes writing which predates typography, in which the rhythm of slow writing with a steady and careful hand can be found

Mock-up: Draft attempting to demonstrate the form of the future printed copy

Guillotine: Machine to cut paper (Printing)

Wetting: Through the principle of repulsion, dampness is found on the parts of the off-set plate which must not be reproduced on paper.

Offset: Today’s most common printing technique which is based on the principle of the mutual dislike of water and ink (greasy substance). The photographically exposed plate has a readable image (positive) covered with a chemical substance which attracts the ink while pushing away the wet water. The plate is first put in contact with the inking rollers. These put a thin layer of ink on the appropriate, damp areas. The image inked is put upside down on the blanket which puts it the right way up on the paper.

Page numbering: page numbering

Pantone or PMS (Pantone Matching System): International composition references system for direct printing ink colours, coloured paper, felts, etc.

Desktop publishing: an IT t process to create page layouts or mock-ups. As DTP is generally performed with micro-computers, the term Micro Publishing can also be used

Packing: Putting prints in packs for delivery (Forwarding)

Overs: Quantity of paper needed to mount a machine before obtaining a proof. (Printing)

Fluffing: Unsticking particles from the layer of paper which has been stripped or which are attached to the printed form (Printing)

Lamination: Application of a cellulose, transparent, matt or shiny film onto a printed sheet (Forwarding)

Perforation: Forwarding involving producing large or small holes with needles. Perforation allows paper to be pre-cut to detach it (notebooks)

Stapling: Binding operation to hold the various pages of a volume with metal stitches (staples) (Forwarding)

Pixel: Basic reproduction unit in IT systems

Plate: Offset printing form

Wallet fold: Three parallel folds to fold two outside sheets towards the central, inner fold (Forwarding)

Shade point: The smallest element of an image reproduced by half-tone engraving, of variable shape and size.

Drypoint: Above all the tool, a simple steel point for engraving metal plates which are used to print the proofs which bear the same name (Engraving / relief printing)

Fonts: All the letters consisting of a character with a given height and width

Gripper margin: Place where the sheet is taken by the grippers in the machine

Quadrichromy: Photographical selection in the 3 primary colours and black to reproduce the colours of the basic document as faithfully as possible (Photoengraving and printing)

Grooving: Squashing of paper by a groove net to facilitate neat folding for all weight over 170 grams

Ream: 500 identical sheets of a certain format (Paper)

Ream: 500 sheets of paper in a format obtained through guillotining, the most common format being 21×29.7 cm (in quarters) (Paper)

Recto: Side of a sheet, the first printed or side of a sheet (Printing). Right-hand page in a book. Antonym: verso

Split: Separation of several printing elements on the same sheet (Printing)

Marking: Exact placing of each printed form to obtain an exact placement of the colours in comparison with one another (Printing)

Retouching: Complementary printing of a publication which has already been printed (Printing)

Transfer: Term designating the passage from the film state to the printed form (plate, screen, etc.)

Reserve: Part or text damaged on the stroke on the negative of one or several colours

Resolution: Degree of fineness of a reproduction or a plotting (DTP)

Double-sided printing: Simultaneous printing on both sides of the sheet, front and back, or turning of the printed sheet on its front to print on the back without changing the form (Printing)

R.I.P: Raster Image Processor, Interface which compiles the computer’s data into the language of the printer or the filmsetter

Trimming: Putting a set of guillotined sheets in the definitive format (Forwarding)

Roman: Vertical typographical characters, capitals and lower case, as distinct from italic characters. The first typographical transposition of human writing was called “Roman” because its first characters were produced at the Subiaco monastery near Rome.

Rotator: Continuous printing machine using paper in bobbins (Printing)

Rolling: Action turning the machine after choosing the proof (Printing)

Rolled (fold): Parallel fold(s), one end joins the other by folding the latter on itself and in the same direction

Saturation: The colour is saturated when it reaches its level of maximum intensity

Scanner: Photoengraving process using the electronic analysis of the image’s colours (Photoengraving). Machine producing an electronic analysis of an image to process the colours and rework the outline (DTP)

Serigraphy: Printing process derived from stencils using a silk screen: some parts have been closed, the ink only passes through the unclosed parts to reach the medium. Printing on any medium (Printing)

Screened: Half-shaded image produced from a document including the grades of values (Photoengraving)

Surfaced: Paper which has been altered on the surface to reduce fluffiness (Paper)

Engraving: The groove traced in the metal with a tool or acid (Engraving)

Relief engraving: Engraving method involving grooving the board in all parts to provide blank spaces by sparing the elements corresponding to the lines of the drawing to allow them to be inked and printed (Engraving / relief printing)

Copper-plate engraving: This term encompasses all manual engraving processes in grooves on metal with inking of the grooves (compared to relief engraving). Some claim that copper-plate engraving comes from the Franco-Province engraving, i.e. removing compared to raising. (Engraving / relief printing)

Thermal engraving: Typographical printing process which, with thick ink and specific drying, attempts to imitate copper-plate engraving production (Relief printing)

Stamping: Copper-plate engraving in steel with a relief effect (Engraving / relief printing / security)

Print run: Running off a proof, i.e. printing. By extension, this term has become synonymous with publishing (Printing)

Mark: Document with only one pure colour and pure white, excluding all shading (Photoengraving and Printing)

Gravure: Cross-hatching obtained in photoengraving, designated by the number of lines to the inch, to reproduce half-shade documents or colours (Photoengraving)

Typography: Art of composing a text with print characters. Manual or mechanical composition process based on raising characters in lead. Printing process using the same relief effect to put the ink on paper (Relief printing)

Vectorial (method): Outline system for a drawing through point coordinates

Vellum: Veal skin used for binding art. High quality writing paper, not laid-finish

Laid-finish: Laid finish has the appearance of translucent lines running horizontally and vertically in the paper. It is produced during the papermaking process with a special roller that creates the pattern in the wet paper.

Full machine / marked varnish: Considered to be a transparent matt or shiny colour

U.V. varnish: Thin layer of varnish (drying by Ultra Violet) put on part of the sheet (gives a shiny or matt effect)

Verso: Side of the printed sheet on second or page 2 of a sheet. Antonym: recto (Printing)

Section: Term synonymous with “sheets” used when talking about brochures (e.g. three-section brochure).